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(Solved): The citric acid cycle (CAC) - also known as the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle or the Krebs cycle - ...
The citric acid cycle (CAC) - also known as the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle or the Krebs cycle - is a series of chemical reactions used by all aerobic organisms to release stored energy through the oxidation of acetyl-CoA derived from carbohydrates, fats, and proteins into carbon dioxide and chemical energy in the mitochondria. 1. Carefully draw the structures of all substrates and products and provide the name for each molecule. (5pts) 2. Write down all steps that involve NAD+/NADH, ATP/ADP, important metal ions and any other important cofactors you can think of. Show the reactions. No structures of NAD+/NADH or ATP/ADP are required, you just need to write down NAD+, NADH, ATP, ADP and show the directions of the reactions. (2pts)
3. In the CAC, what is the eventual total amount of ATP output through electron transport from the production of NADH,FADH and substrate level phosphorylation. Assume an NADHand ?FADH2? produce 3ATPs and 2ATPs respectively. (2pts) 4. A mole of glucose are labeled with 14C on the C6 of the glucose molecule. Assume all glucose is metabolized through glycolysis and its product pyruvate enters into the citric acid cycle. When the experiment is chased with non-isotopic labeled glucose, what is the percentage retention (how much is left) of 14C (relative to the starting amount of 14C in glucose) after 5 rounds of the citric acid cycle? (6pts)