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Project Chandrayaan required ISRO to establish wireless communication link between earth and spacecraft in moon. Earth to moon distance could be taken as \( 384 \times 10^{6} \mathrm{Km} \) and operating frequency is \( 3.5 \mathrm{GHz} \). The ground station reflector antenna at ISRO is \( 32 \mathrm{~m} \) diameter with \( 100 \% \) aperture efficiency. The minimum signal required at ground station for proper detection is \( -110 \mathrm{dbm} \). Determine the Effective Isotropic Radiated Power (EIRP) of the transmitter aboard the spacecraft in \( \mathrm{dB} \). Determine the gain of the reflector antennas deployed in the ground station ISRO proposes to use the same set up for Mangalyaan. Earth mars distance is nearly \( 400 \times 10^{6} \mathrm{Km} \). Calculate the Effective Isotropic Radiated Power (EIRP) requirement in \( \mathrm{dB} \) and comment on the result with the previous value.

Solution: To determine the effective isotropic radiated power (EIRP) of the transmitter aboard the spacecraft, we need to use the following equation: