LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTION
Q. All consecutive patients aged 18 or above, were assessed before starting intravenous chemotherapy for the first time with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Distress Thermometer, and a Visual Analog Scale for pain. Demographic and clinical data were also collected. The patients assessed (n = 270) had a mean age of 59.4 (SD = 11.8) years, and 50.7% were women. Tumors were more frequently colorectal (27.2%), lung (18.8%) and breast (17.6%), and 68.9% were stages 3 or 4. A HADS Anxiety score ?8 was present in 30% of the patients, a Depression score ?8 in 24.1%, and a Distress score ?4 in 44.4%. Independent risk factors for HADS Depression score ?8 were being a woman (OR = 2.45; p = 0.004), being older (OR = 1.04; p = 0.005), and cancer stage 3-4 (OR = 2.24; p = 0.023) in the multivariable analysis; for Anxiety ?8 they were being a woman (OR = 2.47; p = 0.002), having a past psychiatric consultation (OR = 2.83; p = 0.029), and cancer stage 3-4 (OR = 1.90; p = 0.047)
What conclusions could be drawn from this study? Please describe the psychological evidence that is relevant to the findings of the study.